Scientific Publications

Linear SPAD array for quantum communication

Title

Linear SPAD array for quantum communication

Authors

A. Incoronato, F. Severini, F. Madonini, F. Villa, F. Zappa

Abstract 

Quantum communication is a fast-growing field that takes advantage of the quantum physics laws to protect and secure sensitive data. This work takes part of the European project UNIQORN (Affordable Quantum Communication for Everyone: Revolutionizing the Ecosystem from Fabrication to Application) whose aim is to develop a Quantum Systemon- Chip (QSoC) for telecom application. One components of the overall developed systems is an integrated circuit with photodetectors to enable the Quantum Random Number Generator (QRNG) block of the system, tailored to communicate with a non-linear optics circuit to be assembled onto it.

The integrated circuit, fabricated in a BCD 160 nm technology, consists of a 32×1 linear array based on Single-Photon Avalanche-Diode (SPAD) detectors for the generation of a raw random number, by revealing the position on the array of the single photon impinging on it. The linear array architecture consists of 32 pixels, with 125 μm pitch, each made by 4 SPADs with different diameter (5 μm, 10 μm, 20 μm, and 50 μm). Two operation modes are implemented: Single-Hit Mode (able to reveal the 5-bit position of the pixel triggered by a single photon, representing a pseudorandom number, in a time window synchronous with the laser emission) and Multi-Hit Mode (used to identify a coincidence of a given number of photons detected within a specified time window).

Venue

SPIE Optics + Optoelectronics, 2021

Place and date

Online, 19 – 23 April 2021

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Demonstration of a Dynamic QKD NetworkControl Using a QKD-Aware SDN ApplicationOver a Programmable Hardware Encryptor

Title

Demonstration of a Dynamic QKD NetworkControl Using a QKD-Aware SDN ApplicationOver a Programmable Hardware Encryptor

Authors

R.S.Tessinari et al.

Abstract

We successfully implemented a QKD-Aware SDN application capable of realtime monitoring and controlling a quantum secure network paired with a programmable FPGA encryption/decryption technology to provide on-demand encryption algorithms for network services between different sites.

Venue

OFC 2021 – The Optical Networking and Communication Conference

Place and date

Hosted in San Francisco, United States, but virtual on 06 – 11 June 2021

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Experimental Demonstration of Programmable 100 Gb/s SDN-Enabled Encryptors/Decryptors for QKD Networks

Title

Experimental Demonstration of Programmable 100 Gb/s SDN-Enabled Encryptors/Decryptors for QKD Networks

Authors

E. Arabul et al.

Abstract

We successfully demonstrated on-demand and programmable encryption/decryption using SDN-enabled FPGA-based technology over a QKD network. Data rate over 90 Gb/s with maximum data encryption of 11.25 GB/s for different encryption schemes were achieved.

Venue

OFC 2021 – The Optical Networking and Communication Conference

Place and date

Hosted in San Francisco, United States, but virtual on 06 – 11 June 2021

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Towards Co-Existence of 100 Gbps Classical Channel Within a WDM Quantum Entanglement Network

Title

Towards Co-Existence of 100 Gbps Classical Channel Within a WDM Quantum Entanglement Network

Authors

R.S.Tessinari et al.

Abstract

We experimentally prove the feasibility of wavelength multiplexing bright 100 Gbps classical communication with multiple single-photon level entanglement channels over SMF-28e fibre in a quantum network. This minimises the resources needed for quantum networks.

Venue

OFC 2021 – The Optical Networking and Communication Conference

Place and date

Hosted in San Francisco, United States, but virtual on 06 – 11 June 2021

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Wavelength Resources Management and Switching of Active Entanglement Distribution Circuits in Optical Networks

Title

Wavelength Resources Management and Switching of Active Entanglement Distribution Circuits in Optical Networks

Authors

O. Alia et al.

Abstract

We provide a formal definition of the entangled wavelength-pairs allocation problem using PDDL paired with a Fast-Forward planner and switching algorithm to optimize the resources of entanglement distribution circuits in optical networks.

Venue

OFC 2021 – The Optical Networking and Communication Conference

Place and Date

Hosted in San Francisco, United States, but virtual on 06 – 11 June 2021

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Dynamic optical interconnects for quantum secure distributed nodes and quantum processing

Title

Dynamic optical interconnects for quantum secure distributed nodes and quantum processing

Authors

George Kanellos; Obada Alia; Emilio Hugues-Salas; Rodrigo Stange Tessinari; Rui Wang; Reza Nejabati; Dimitra Simeonidou

Abstract

Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) has emerged as the technology to offer ultimate security, posing additional challenges in the physical layer due to its single-photon nature. Co-existence with classical data and switching aspects are discussed in dynamic-QKD applications for inter- data-centre communications and switched entanglement-based quantum distribution.

Venue

2020 IEEE Photonics Conference (IPC)

Place and Date

Virtual Conference, 28 September – 1 October 2020

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True Random Number Generation in an Optical I/Q Modulator

Title

True Random Number Generation in an Optical I/Q Modulator

Authors

Dinka Milovančev, Nemanja Vokić, Christoph Pacher, Hannes Hübel, and Bernhard Schrenk.

Abstract

We re-use a polarization-multiplexed I/Q modulator to acquire the quantum randomness of its seed laser light for the purpose of quantum random number generation. We obtain 9×10^4 256-bit AES keys/second after randomness extraction. Time-interleaved random number generation is demonstrated for PM-QPSK transmission.

Venue

European Conference on Optical Communicatios – ECOC 2020

Place and Date

6 – 10 Dec. 2020, hosted in Belgium, but 100% virtual

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Towards Integrating True Random Number Generation in Coherent Optical Transceivers

Title

Towards Integrating True Random Number Generation in Coherent Optical Transceivers

Authors

Dinka Milovančev, Nemanja Vokić, Christoph Pacher, Imran Khan, Christoph Marquardt, Winfried Boxleitner, Hannes Hübel, and Bernhard Schrenk.

Abstract

The integration of quantum communication functions often requires dedicated opto-electronic components that do not bode well with the technology roadmaps of telecom systems. We investigate the capability of commercial coherent transceiver sub-systems to support quantum random number generation next to classical data transmission, and demonstrate how the quantum entropy source based on vacuum fluctuations can be potentially converted into a true random number generator for this purpose. We discuss two possible implementations, building on a receiver- and a transmitter-centric architecture. In the first scheme, balanced homodyne broadband detection in a coherent intradyne receiver is exploited to measure the vacuum state at the input of a 90-degree hybrid. In our proof-ofprinciple demonstration, a clearance of >2 dB between optical and electrical noise is obtained over a wide bandwidth of more than 11 GHz. In the second scheme, we propose and evaluate the re-use of monitoring photodiodes of a polarization-multiplexed inphase/quadrature modulator for the same purpose. Time-interleaved random number generation is demonstrated for 10 Gbaud polarizationmultiplexed quadrature phase shift keyed data transmission. The availability of detailed models will allow to calculate the extractable entropy and we accordingly show randomness extraction for our two proof-of-principle experiments, employing a two-universal strong extractor.

Venue

IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics (JSTQE), vol. 26, no. 5, p. 6400608, Sep. 2020

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On the QKD Integration in Converged Fiber/Wireless Topologies for Secured, Low-Latency 5G/B5G Fronthaul

Title

On the QKD Integration in Converged Fiber/Wireless Topologies for Secured, Low-Latency 5G/B5G Fronthaul

Authors

Zavitsanos, D., Ntanos A., Giannoulis, G., & Avramopoulos, H.

Abstract

A research contribution focusing on the Quantum Key Distribution (QKD)-enabled solutions assisting in the security framework of an optical 5G fronthaul segment is presented. We thoroughly investigate the integration of a BB84-QKD link, operating at telecom band, delivering quantum keys for the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)-256 encryption engines of a packetized fronthaul layer interconnecting multiple 5G terminal nodes. Secure Key Rate calculations are studied for both dedicated and shared fiber configurations to identify the attack surface of AES-encrypted data links in each deployment scenario. We also propose a converged fiber-wireless scenario, exploiting a mesh networking extension operated by mmWave wireless links. In addition to the quantum layer performance, emphasis is placed on the strict requirements of 5G-oriented optical edge segments, such as the latency and the availability of quantum keys. We find that for the dark fiber case, secret keys can be distilled at fiber lengths much longer than the maximum fiber fronthaul distance corresponding to the round-trip latency barrier, for both P2P and P2MP topologies. On the contrary, the inelastic Raman scattering makes the simultaneous transmission of quantum and classical signals much more challenging. To counteract the contamination of noise photons, a resilient classical/QKD coexistence scheme is adopted. Motivated by the recent advancements in quantum technology roadmap, our analysis aims to introduce the QKD blocks as a pillar of the quantum-safe security framework of the 5G/B5G-oriented fronthaul infrastructure.

Venue

Applied Sciences Journal, Volume 10, Issue 15, July 2020

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Adding Artificial Noise for Dynamic Code Rate Matching in Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution

Title

Adding Artificial Noise for Dynamic Code Rate Matching in Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution

Authors

S. Kreinberg, I. Koltchanov, A. Richter

Abstract

CV-QKD over long distances requires high reconciliation efficiencies, hence matching error correction code rate vs. SNR. For time-varying quantum channels, we achieve this by adding a controlled amount of digital noise to the measured data.

Venue

CLEO 2020

Place and Date

All-virtual, web conference format 11 – 15 May 2020

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