True Random Number Generation in an Optical I/Q Modulator

Title

True Random Number Generation in an Optical I/Q Modulator

Authors

Dinka Milovančev, Nemanja Vokić, Christoph Pacher, Hannes Hübel, and Bernhard Schrenk.

Abstract

We re-use a polarization-multiplexed I/Q modulator to acquire the quantum randomness of its seed laser light for the purpose of quantum random number generation. We obtain 9×10^4 256-bit AES keys/second after randomness extraction. Time-interleaved random number generation is demonstrated for PM-QPSK transmission.

Venue

European Conference on Optical Communicatios – ECOC 2020

Place and Date

6 – 10 Dec. 2020, hosted in Belgium, but 100% virtual

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UNIQORN at European Quantum Week 2020

Image source: Quantum Flagship

Our project will have a strong presence at the European Quantum Week in Berlin, where the UNIQORN results and use cases will be presented.

Place: Online
Date: Wednesday, 4 November 2020 at 12:55 – 14:00
Session: Introducing the Communication Pillar

Our project coordinator Hannes Hübel will present the UNIQORN highlights and results achieved so far at the European Quantum Week 2020. The event is organised by the Quantum Flagship with the purpose to share with the quantum community, the general public and other relevant stakeholders the latest developments in the field of Quantum. Participants will have the chance to interact with quantum experts from different sectors and learn about the future of Quantum in Europe.

Place: Online
Date: Thursday, 5 November 2020 at 12:00 – 13:00
Session: Quantum Technologies Use Cases

During the Quantum Technologies Use Cases the following UNIQORN use cases will be presented:

  • Use case 1: Quantum secure 5G networks
  • Use case 2: DPS-QKD for Secure FTTH Deployments
  • Use case 3: Dynamic quantum networks with intelligent entanglement distribution
  • Use case 4: Feasible one-time programs in an urban network

Use cases 1 and 2 are QKD related uses-cases, use-case 3 deals with optimization for quantum enhanced networks and use-case 4 is a novel quantum communication protocol based on one-time program quantum algorithm.

Link to European Quantum Week 2020

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QKD in Support of Secured P2P and P2MP Key Exchange for Low-Latency 5G Connectivity 

Title

QKD in Support of Secured P2P and P2MP Key Exchange for Low-Latency 5G Connectivity

Authors

Ntanos, A., Zavitsanos, D., Giannoulis, G., & Avramopoulos, H.

Abstract

A quantum-secured packetized optical fronthaul segment is thoroughly discussed. We present an extensive study on the integration of a Discrete Variable-Quantum Key Distribution (DV-QKD) link supporting the Advanced Encryption Standard-256 (AES-256) encryption of packetized fronthaul operating at 10Gbps. Secure key rates exceeding the 1Kbps and short rotation times down to 1.4s are reported for Point-to-Point (P2P) topologies by considering the latency budget of 5G fronthaul connectivity. For the multi-user environment, the Bob stations implementation of quantum layer is adapted to satisfy the connectivity needs of Point-to-Multipoint (P2MP) scenario, allowing for successful distribution of AES-256 keys to N=16 5G terminal nodes with ultra-low attack success probabilities of less than 2-60.”

Venue

IEEE 5G World Forum

Place and Date

Online, 10 September 2020

Posted by admin in project deliverables

Towards Integrating True Random Number Generation in Coherent Optical Transceivers

Title

Towards Integrating True Random Number Generation in Coherent Optical Transceivers

Authors

Dinka Milovančev, Nemanja Vokić, Christoph Pacher, Imran Khan, Christoph Marquardt, Winfried Boxleitner, Hannes Hübel, and Bernhard Schrenk.

Abstract

The integration of quantum communication functions often requires dedicated opto-electronic components that do not bode well with the technology roadmaps of telecom systems. We investigate the capability of commercial coherent transceiver sub-systems to support quantum random number generation next to classical data transmission, and demonstrate how the quantum entropy source based on vacuum fluctuations can be potentially converted into a true random number generator for this purpose. We discuss two possible implementations, building on a receiver- and a transmitter-centric architecture. In the first scheme, balanced homodyne broadband detection in a coherent intradyne receiver is exploited to measure the vacuum state at the input of a 90-degree hybrid. In our proof-ofprinciple demonstration, a clearance of >2 dB between optical and electrical noise is obtained over a wide bandwidth of more than 11 GHz. In the second scheme, we propose and evaluate the re-use of monitoring photodiodes of a polarization-multiplexed inphase/quadrature modulator for the same purpose. Time-interleaved random number generation is demonstrated for 10 Gbaud polarizationmultiplexed quadrature phase shift keyed data transmission. The availability of detailed models will allow to calculate the extractable entropy and we accordingly show randomness extraction for our two proof-of-principle experiments, employing a two-universal strong extractor.

Venue

IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics (JSTQE), vol. 26, no. 5, p. 6400608, Sep. 2020

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On the QKD Integration in Converged Fiber/Wireless Topologies for Secured, Low-Latency 5G/B5G Fronthaul

Title

On the QKD Integration in Converged Fiber/Wireless Topologies for Secured, Low-Latency 5G/B5G Fronthaul

Authors

Zavitsanos, D., Ntanos A., Giannoulis, G., & Avramopoulos, H.

Abstract

A research contribution focusing on the Quantum Key Distribution (QKD)-enabled solutions assisting in the security framework of an optical 5G fronthaul segment is presented. We thoroughly investigate the integration of a BB84-QKD link, operating at telecom band, delivering quantum keys for the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)-256 encryption engines of a packetized fronthaul layer interconnecting multiple 5G terminal nodes. Secure Key Rate calculations are studied for both dedicated and shared fiber configurations to identify the attack surface of AES-encrypted data links in each deployment scenario. We also propose a converged fiber-wireless scenario, exploiting a mesh networking extension operated by mmWave wireless links. In addition to the quantum layer performance, emphasis is placed on the strict requirements of 5G-oriented optical edge segments, such as the latency and the availability of quantum keys. We find that for the dark fiber case, secret keys can be distilled at fiber lengths much longer than the maximum fiber fronthaul distance corresponding to the round-trip latency barrier, for both P2P and P2MP topologies. On the contrary, the inelastic Raman scattering makes the simultaneous transmission of quantum and classical signals much more challenging. To counteract the contamination of noise photons, a resilient classical/QKD coexistence scheme is adopted. Motivated by the recent advancements in quantum technology roadmap, our analysis aims to introduce the QKD blocks as a pillar of the quantum-safe security framework of the 5G/B5G-oriented fronthaul infrastructure.

Venue

Applied Sciences Journal, Volume 10, Issue 15, July 2020

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Adding Artificial Noise for Dynamic Code Rate Matching in Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution

Title

Adding Artificial Noise for Dynamic Code Rate Matching in Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution

Authors

S. Kreinberg, I. Koltchanov, A. Richter

Abstract

CV-QKD over long distances requires high reconciliation efficiencies, hence matching error correction code rate vs. SNR. For time-varying quantum channels, we achieve this by adding a controlled amount of digital noise to the measured data.

Venue

CLEO 2020

Place and Date

All-virtual, web conference format 11 – 15 May 2020

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Modelling Weak-Coherent QKD Systems Using a Classical Simulation Framework

Title

Modelling Weak-Coherent QKD Systems Using a Classical Simulation Framework

Authors

S. Kreinberg, P. Novik, I. Koltchanov, A. Richter

Abstract

We demonstrate how an existing simulation framework for modelling classical optical systems can be utilized for simulations of weak-coherent QKD links.

Venue

CLEO 2020

Place and Date

All-virtual, web conference format 11 – 15 May 2020

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Monolithically integrated differential phase shift transmitter for quantum key distribution

Title

Monolithically integrated differential phase shift transmitter for quantum key distribution

Authors

Ozan Çirkinoglu, Rui Santos, Kevin A. Williams, Xaveer J.M. Leijtens

Abstract

An integrated differential phase shift QKD transmitter, which consist of a distributed Bragg reflector laser, a phase modulator, and Mach-Zehnder modulator sections for pulse carving and optical attenuation has been designed and fabricated. Initial characterization shows single mode operation of the laser with a linewidth around 2 MHz, and an achievable optical attenuation of more than 60 dB.

Venue

22nd European Conference on Integrated Optics, 2020 (ECIO)

Place and date

Online, 23 – 24 June 2020

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An InP-based integrated modulated coherent state source for differential phase shift quantum key distribution

Title

An InP-based integrated modulated coherent state source for differential phase shift quantum key distribution

Authors

Ozan Çirkinoglu, Rui Santos, Kevin A. Williams, Xaveer J.M. Leijtens

Abstract

A low-cost integrated differential phase shift QKD transmitter, which consist of a distributed Bragg reflector laser, a phase modulator, and Mach-Zehnder modulator sections for pulse carving and optical attenuation is presented. Initial characterization results of the laser, and the modulator sections are demonstrated.

Venue

24th annual IEEE Photonics Benelux Symposium 2019

Place and Date

Netherlands, Amsterdam, 21 – 22 November 2019

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